Sunday, November 24, 2013

Nuclear : Iran and the major powers seal a historic first agreement

Geneva (AFP ) - Iran and the major powers have sealed a first historic agreement Sunday to contain Tehran's nuclear program , but stressed that it was only a " first hurtle  is crossed.

After five days of intense negotiations , the major powers and Iran announced an agreement under which the Islamic Republic agrees to limit its nuclear program in exchange for an easing of economic sanctions , opening a new period of talks on the bottom for six months.

More specifically, the agreement provides that " the existing stock of 20% enriched uranium , Iran will hold half uranium oxide to make fuel for the ( Iranian civil research reactor ) TRR . He dilute the (stock) remaining 20% UF6 ( uranium hexafluoride, a gas that contributes directly to the uranium centrifuges) to less than 5% . "

More Tehran agrees not to enrich uranium to more than 5% for six months and not to develop new enrichment sites.

Success and an important first step

The agreement was described as "success" by Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei and " important first step " by the President of the United States Barack Obama.

French President Fran├žois Hollande there saw " a step towards stopping Iran's nuclear weapons program ."

This agreement could be " the beginning of a historic agreement for the peoples and nations of the Middle East and beyond ," said the Secretary General of the UN , Ban Ki -moon.

" A breakthrough was achieved , but only a first step on a long and difficult way," nuanced Russian President Vladimir Putin.

In the same way the U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry said Sunday night that " now the really hard part begins ." Just arrived from Geneva to London he said it will take " an effort to get a comprehensive agreement that will require huge commitments in terms of verification , transparency and accountability. "

And the U.S. Congress has already announced its support for strengthened against new Iran sanctions would come into force only if Tehran does not comply with the agreement reached in Geneva sanctions. According to the summary of an adviser to a U.S. Senator , " the sanctions take effect if they cheat or dismantling is not commenced within six months."

The agreement is a step forward for experts because it establishes a wider range of constraints and checks on the Iranian nuclear program.

According to Bruno Tertrais , the Foundation for Strategic Research , based in Paris , "is an agreement that saves time , since much of Iran's nuclear program will be frozen for six months" .

However, the text leaves some ambiguity that allows different interpretations.

On one side the Iranian President Hassan Rohani said that " the right to uranium enrichment on Iranian soil was accepted ." On the other hand , John Kerry assured the contrary that the agreement " does not say that Iran has the right to enrich , though some of the reviewers in interpreting ."

"It says ( document ) is that part of a complete solution , if we reach the next stage of this comprehensive solution , Iran will be able to enjoy their fundamental rights to dispose of the nuclear energy for peaceful purposes , which involve what we call an enrichment program mutually defined and limited practical needs , "said the head of the British diplomacy William Hague.

In Washington , President Barack Obama assured that the agreement of the Islamic republic to an atomic bomb " bar the most obvious way."

He took care to emphasize the " enormous difficulties " persistent on this issue that plagues the international community over the past decade , adding that sanctions " the toughest continue to be applied."

The West and Israel suspect Tehran of concealing a military component behind its civilian program , which he denies .

This question is at the heart of the concerns of Western countries and Israel, who fear that uranium enriched to 20% is used by Iran to obtain uranium to 90% for military use , despite Tehran 's denials .

Iran says the uranium is for its research reactor and for medical purposes .

A medical purposes

Kerry also sought to reassure Israel , saying that a nuclear agreement " will complete the world (...) , partners in the region and ally Israel safer ."

But Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu denounced a "historic mistake " after his office spoke of a " bad deal that offers what Iran wanted : significant lifting of sanctions and the maintenance of a significant part of its nuclear program " .